MUSEUM OF SELJUKS CIVILIZATION

Museum of Seljuks Civilization The fact that Anatolia is on international trade routes has led to the development of trade as well as bringing about various problems like diseases. In the 12th century, the intensity of trade and travel movement from west to east, the destruction of infectious diseases reached terrible degrees with the carriage of armies. In Anatolia, epidemics, especially the plague that people called “black death” increased the need for health institutions. Natural disasters appeared in 1221 in Konya, in 1224 in Malatya, in 1259 in Syria and in Anatolia, following the massive famine, followed by the encirclement of the Mongol Army, the natural disaster in Mardin and Meyyafarikin (Silvan) resulted in massive destruction.The Seljuks of Turkey have used the term “Maristan, Bimaristan, Darü’l–Sıhha, Darü’l–Merza, Darü’l–Afiye” or “Darüşşifa” with their widespread use for health institutions. Hospitals are examined in four parts as “Mobile, caravanserai, palace, health of the people and the general hospital of the institution for medical education. Nişabur, Baghdad, Nizamiye Madrasah hospitals built by Nizamülmülk, Kayseri Gevher Nesibe Darüşşifası and Madrasah is classified in the group of the general hospital for health and medical education for the people.In Kayseri, the first structure of the site–university, which is very similar to the method of education of our time, is the first madrasah built in the name of Gevher Nesibe Sultan, the sister of Sultan I. Gıyaseddin Keyhüsrev (probably twin sister). Four halls and courtyards are situated in the madrasah. In this education complex, which had a madrasah plan, the physicians were educated while the patients were being served. Darüşşifa was built by the daughter of Sultan II. Kılıçarslan, Gevher Nesibe Sultan during the second reign of I. Gıyaseddin Keyhüsrev (M.1205–1211). The madrasah, which was mentioned in the Tahrir Book of 1530, consists of two parts, “Gıyasiye and Şifaiye”. Turhan Baytop considers these health facilities as full–fledged hospitals with robust residences, adequate physicians, drugstores and health technicians. There is also a mental health hospital in Şifaiye. Gevher Nesibe Sultan* falls in love with commander from outside the palace. Her brother or twin, I. Gıyaseddin Keyhüsrev, does not approve this relationship because it will not conform to the Seljuk custom and the state tradition. The Sultan’s lover, commander is sent to war and the commander is killed. This death makes the sultan very sad. When his sister is in a sick bed, Sultan I. Gıyaseddin Keyhüsrev apologizes and asks her if there is a request.Gevher Nesibe Sultan asks that all the goods that will be left to her by his father II. Kılıçarslan to be donated to a foundation for the construction of a medical center for the treatment of people like her and her jewelery to be donated to the girls of the bridal age of the workers who will work in the construction of the Darüşşifa. He took his sister’s wish as a will and on his behalf Şifaiye and Gıyasiye were built the earliest founding in Anatolia which is called Çifte Madrasah. Gevher Nesibe Hatun dies before she reaches the age of 39, and in order to fulfill his sister’s desire,I. Gıyaseddin Keyhüsrev builds the hospital in two years and opens it to service. Gıyasiye Madrasah gives medical education while the hospital called Şifahane became the practice center of medicine. Among the public it is called Double or Twin Madrasahs, Kayseri Darüşşifası, Şifa Hatun Madrasah, Nesibe Hospital or Darüşşifa Madrasah.Hospital and Medical School has open–courtyard, four–eyed halls are four–sided, one–storey plan type. In the example, the Darüşşifa and madrasah with separate courtyards, porches, jewels and other units are connected to each other by a corridor in the north of the inner courtyard. In the western part of the Darüşşifa, there are nine rooms / patient rooms of the same size, with a rectangular plan close to a square lined around a corridor, as it is in today’s hospitals. This section is thought to be used as a mental health unit. It was emphasized that the co–planar structures adjacent to each other were kept larger. It is known that in the first staff of the hospital were 2 physicians, 1 surgeon, 1 eye doctor, 1 pharmacist and 1 administrator, who were chief physicians, and Doctor Ebubekir was in Kayseri and served as chief physician. Meanwhile, Ekmelüddin Müeyyet, who was the chief physician in Konya, and Doctor Ebubekir, who works in Kayseri show that the health institution is managed from Konya. An inscription in the middle of the crown door of the hospital there is a lion motif and it must be made in memory of Sultan II Kılıçarslan, Gevher Nesibe and Gıyaseddin Keyhüsrev on the right inside of the crown door where this inscription is located. A similar motif is found in the Sahabiye Madrasah near Darüşşifa.

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