It is the name of the sports field in which people slide and advance on snow without getting stuck into it. The skis, which are the most fundamental equipment of this sport, might differ according to the height and weight of the sportsman, and to the sports field they are involved in while all skis become wider towards the front with the front end bending upright and the back end is narrow and rectangular. The curves of ski ends are the most important feature playing a significant role in the flexibility of the ski and its level of resistance to bending. Parallel to the developments in the field of skiing, new patterns are tested in the front parts of the skis. After the wider skis enabling skiers to ski on powder snow, the skis which provide the chance to make turns easily with relatively low effort thanks to their parabolic cuts were on demand.

In general, skis are made of thin layers of wood, plastic foam, fiberglass and metal plates compressed to each other like a sandwich and outer parts are covered with special materials to increase smoothness.

In the Alpine Discipline skis, the front end is 6-8 cm wide, while their length depends on the physical characteristics of the person using the ski. They are made of flexible materials when passing from holes and bumps on snow during skiing.

In the North Discipline skis, however, the skis are narrower and longer, with a single fixation on the front end.

Basic Acts and techniques:
Alpine discipline

North Combine

Freestyle

Freeride

Skibob

Skywall

Carving

Monoski

Halfpipe

Boardercross

Telemark

Snowboard

Biatlon

Ski Run

Skiboarding

Ski Jump

Shoes
The shoes used in the Alpine Discipline are made of hard plastics and extend through underneath the knee. In order to fix the foot ankle, inner parts of the shoes are covered with sponge layers.

The North Discipline shoes are made of leather, plastics and light materials and their length stretch onto the foot ankles. These shoes look like a sports shoe while having a special part on the front end to fix the skis.

Fixation
In order to fix the shoes on the skis, there are parts on both ends in the Alpine Discipline shoes while North Discipline ones have a fixation to be screwed in the front end only. Fixations are produced with metal and hard plastics in certain sizes. There are stoppers on the back part of fixations in the Alpine Discipline.

Batons (Ski Sticks)
These are the materials used in the Alpine Discipline in order to maintain balance and make rhythmic turns when skiing; while in the North Discipline they are used to retain speed on plain surfaces as well as climbing comfortably and faster up to the hills. Batons are made of light metals and their length depends on the user’s height. At the moment of falling, the athlete has a strap attached to the upper side so as to prevent him/herself from falling. Bottom sides are pointed. To prevent the batons from sinking into the ground, there is a round plastic plate called "bagel" which is 5 cm below the bottom.

Waxing
 

These are a mixture of wax and paraffin which are covered under the skis in the Alpine Discipline to prevent the ski from getting stuck into snow as well as increasing its speed and in the North Discipline competitions to increase sliding sped on downhill slopes and to prevent slipping backwards while climbing uphill.

Clothes
Skiers use light weight and water proof clothing wrapped on their bodies to keep themselves warm. They wear gloves and bruises and glasses to protect their eyes from snow, wind and harmful sun rays.

History
The initial stages of discovery of ski is thought to have been connected with the quest of people to find something to prevent getting stuck in snow by using some wooden materials in different forms. Its history dates back to 5000 years with the first skis being made of ash, birch and pine trees, while the bottom of pine tree  parts are covered with tar to increase smoothness, while those with birch bottoms are covered with leather. The regions where ski first appeared and used include Siberia, Mongolia and Altai. The regions in which skis are subsequently used include North America, Balkans, Anatolia and through the north Scandinavia and Iceland. In 1921, a primitive ski which was made of pine tree (Hoting Ski) was found to be 4500 years old in Sweden. Used as a transportation tool for the first time in Norway, Sweden, Finland and some Eastern European Countries, ski was introduced to military use after 15th century in Sweden, Norway, Poland and Russia. Thanks to its adoption as a sports tool in time, the first ski competitions took place in Cristina in 1866. Upon high public attention to this competition, a bigger event was organized in Oslo in 1879 including ski jumping activities. In 1880’s, Norwegian Fridtjof Nansen crossed the north end of Greenland on ski with his team of 6 people, and then he published his book named “Ski Travel on Greenland”, which resulted in greater public attention into ski. In 1896, Mathias Zdarsky made a new revolution in skiing by finding new techniques that laid the foundations of Alpine discipline. The first ski club in the world was established in Norway as a result of Fridtjof Nansen’s initiative under the name “Ski Club de Cristina” in 1877, as followed by its successors in Germany in 1890, in Austria in 1894, in France in 1901 and in England in 1903. In 1924, Federation International de Ski (FIS) was established in Bern and ski was included in winter Olympiads in the same year. Organized by FIS for the first time in 1925, the “North Discipline” and for the first time in 1931 the “Alpine Discipline” competitions are now organized bi-annually in different places independent from each other.

Turkey and History of Skiing
 

Known as “Çana” in old Turks according to the records, ski was used as a tool for walking on snow around Baikal Lake in B.C. 4000. Introduced to Scandinavian countries through migrations, ski became widespread in Europe after the 18th century. In our country, ski was first produced in a carpenter’s workshop in Golden Horn in 1914 in great numbers and carried to Erzurum on animals’ back and 30 skier soldiers were trained in the courses opened in Erzurum to take part in the Caucasian front. In 1 Jan. 1933, a group of teachers from Galatasaray High School skied for the first time on Uludağ thus having a leading role for this sport in Turkey.

Between the years of 1933-1934, the Public Houses of Bursa, Ankara and Erzurum and Guard Regiment got specifically interested in ski sport. After 1934, ski sport was disseminated on a national scale over Public Houses in snowy regions. In 1939, the Federation of Mountaineering and Winter Sports was established. Turkish Ski Federation was actually established in 1935 under the name of “Mountaineering and Horse Riding Federation”. The two sports were maintained together from 1935 until 1938. It was not until 1936 that Turkey’s debut in the Winter Olympiads was guaranteed when the name of the federation was changed as “Mountaineering and Winter Sports” just two months before the Winter Olympiads. The first ski competition in international standards in Turkey was held in 1944 thanks to the efforts of Asım Kurt. Turkish skiers took part in several competitions including 1948 Saint Moritz, 1952 Oslo, 1956 Cortinad’Ampezzo, 1960 SquawValley and 1964 Inssbruck Olympiads while not demonstrating any achievements. By taking the 8th position in the Balkan Ski Championship held in 1968, Burhan Alankuş took the best degree on an international scale so far. In 1970, Rıdvan Özbek, taking part in the event from Sarıkamış Region, became the Balkan Champion in the North Discipline Youth Category in the Balkan Championship held in Uludağ. On the other hand, our teams took the 3rd place in Teens and Adult Males Categories in the Balkan Ski Championship held in 1975. The Turkish team (Teens) took the bronze medal in the 4×10 km flag race in the Balkan Championship held in 1981. Turkish Ski Federation has been organizing ski coaching and instruction courses as well as ski camps for minors each year in order to develop skiing in Turkey. Ski courses are provided to children aged between 7 and 15 during the semester holiday by the Provincial Directorates of Youth and Sports in the cities where skiing is done.

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